Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare is the manipulation of information trusted by a ..
↑ Mei Hua. . Cambridge University Press. 3 March 2011: 43. ISBN978-0-521-18689-6（英语）. The severity of the situation forced the Qing government to adopt policies of compromise to ease the crisis. They ruled that clothes for men, government officials, Confucian scholars and prostitutes must follow the Manchu tradition, but that clothes for women, errand boys, children, monks, Taoists and the clothing worn to funerals and weddings may follow the Han tradition. As a result, from the beginning to the middle years of the Qing Dynasty, Manchu women differed greatly from the Han women in their hairstyles clothes and shoes.