康尼島（英語：），又译科尼島，是位於美國紐約市布魯克林區的半島，原本為一座海島，其面向大西洋的海灘是美國知名的休閒娛樂區域。居民大多集中位於半島的西側，約有六萬人左右，範圍西至希捷社區，東至布萊登海灘和曼哈頓海灘，而北至葛瑞福山德社區。 二十世紀前葉在美國極為知名的太空星際樂園即是以康尼島作為主要的腹地，該樂園在二次大戰後開始衰退，並持續荒廢了許久。在最近幾年，康尼島因為凱斯班公園的開幕而重新繁榮起來，凱斯班公園是職棒小聯盟球隊布魯克林旋風的主要球場。旋風隊在當地十分受到歡迎，每季開賽時都會吸引許多球迷到場觀戰。 ..

Anjos da guarda são os anjos que segundo as crenças cristãs, Deus envia no nosso nascimento para nos proteger durante toda a nossa vida. Argumenta-se que a Bíblia sustenta em algumas ocasiões a crença do anjo da guarda: "Vou enviar um anjo adiante de ti para ..

Altay Cumhuriyeti (Rusça: Респу́блика Алта́й / Respublika Altay; Altay Türkçesi: Алтай Республика / Altay Respublika), Rusya'nın en güneyinde yer alan, federasyona bağlı bir özerk cumhuriyet. Orta Asya'da Asya kıtasının coğrafî merkezinin hemen kuzeyinde ve ..

沙羅週期長度為18年11天，本週期包含70次日食，其中公元3000年以前有49次。 註：下表各項數據均為食分最大地點的情況。寬度指該地點食甚時刻月球的本影（全食時）或偽本影（環食時）落在地表的寬度，持續時間指該地點食既到生光的時間，即全食或環食的持續時間，全環食（亦稱混合食）發生時，食分最大處為全食。最後兩項參數不適用於偏食。 本周期最終結束於3378年6月17日。

希西家王 (希伯來語：，英語：）是猶大末年的君主，也是猶大國歷史中極尊重上帝的君王，在位29年。終年54歲。他在位的年份有兩種說法：其一是前715年-前687年；另一種是前716年-前687年。他的德行在其前後的猶大列王中，没有一個能及他。其希伯來名字的意思是“被神加力量”。 希西家的父親亞哈斯是一個背逆上帝的君王。因此在希西家當政之初的猶大國，無論政治，宗教上都极其黑暗。根據《聖經》記載，因为北國以色列被亞述攻滅，亞述王可以趁勢来攻打猶大國；又猶大的先王亞哈斯曾封鎖了聖殿之路，引導舉國崇拜偶像，大大得罪上帝。若非上帝的憐憫，為了堅定向大衛家所說的應許，猶大國的暫得幸存。希西家在二十五歲就登基作王，且正在國家危急之秋，由於行耶和華上帝眼中看為正的事，因而得上帝的憐憫，得以成功脫離亞述大軍的攻擊和一場致死的大病。他樂於聽從當代先知以賽亞的指導，使他為上帝大發熱心。 ..

The OnePlus 2 (also abbreviated as OP2) is a smartphone designed by OnePlus. It is the successor to the OnePlus One. OnePlus revealed the phone on 28 July 2015 via virtual reality, using Google's Cardboard visor and their own app. OnePlus sold out 30,000 units ..

兴隆街镇，是中华人民共和国四川省内江市资中县下辖的一个乡镇级行政单位。 兴隆街镇下辖以下地区： 兴隆街社区、兴松村、玄天观村、三元村、金星村、三皇庙村、双桥村、红庙子村、华光村、高峰村、芦茅湾村、篮家坝村、五马村和解放村。

Национальная и университетская библиотека (словен. Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, NUK), основанная в 1774 году, — один из важнейших образовательных и культурных учреждений Словении. Она располагается в центре столицы Любляна, между улицами Турьяшка (Turjaška ..

Mauser M1924 (или M24) — серия винтовок компании Mauser, использовавшихся в армиях Бельгии и Югославии. Внешне напоминают чехословацкие винтовки vz. 24, в которых использовались стандартный открытый прицел, патроны калибра 7,92×57 мм (или 8×57 мм), укороченные ..

第三条道路（英語：），又称新中间路线（Middle Way），是一种走在自由放任资本主义和传统社会主义中间的一种政治经济理念的概称。它由中间派所倡导，是社会民主主义的一个流派，英国工党称其为「现代化的社会民主主义」。它的中心思想是既不主张纯粹的自由市场，也不主张纯粹的社會主義，主张在两者之间取折衷方案。 第三条道路不只单单是走在中间，或只是一种妥协或混合出来的东西，第三条道路的提倡者看到了社会主义和资本主义互有不足之处，所以偏向某一极端也不是一件好事，第三条道路正正是揉合了双方主义的优点，互补不足而成的政治哲学。 ..

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In game theory, the * war of attrition* is a dynamic timing game in which players choose a time to stop, and fundamentally trade off the strategic gains from outlasting other players and the real costs expended with the passage of time. Its precise opposite is the

To see how a war of attrition works, consider the all pay auction: Assume that each player makes a bid on an item, and the one who bids the highest wins a resource of value *V*. Each player pays his bid. In other words, if a player bids *b*, then his payoff is *-b* if he loses, and *V-b* if he wins. Finally, assume that if both players bid the same amount *b*, then they split the value of *V*, each gaining *V*/2-*b*. Finally, think of the bid *b* as time, and this becomes the war of attrition, since a higher bid is costly, but the higher bid wins the prize.

The premise that the players may bid any number is important to analysis of the all-pay, sealed-bid, second-price auction. The bid may even exceed the value of the resource that is contested over. This at first appears to be irrational, being seemingly foolish to pay more for a resource than its value; however, remember that each bidder only pays the *low* bid. Therefore, it would seem to be in each player's best interest to bid the maximum possible amount rather than an amount equal to or less than the value of the resource.

There is a catch, however; if both players bid higher than *V*, the high bidder does not so much win as lose less. The player who bid the lesser value *b* loses *b* and the one who bid more loses *b* -*V* (where, in this scenario, b>V). This situation is commonly referred to as a Pyrrhic victory. For a tie such that *b*>*V*/2, they both lose *b*-*V*/2. Luce and Raiffa referred to the latter situation as a "ruinous situation";^{} both players suffer, and there is no winner.

The conclusion one can draw from this pseudo-matrix is that there is no value to bid which is beneficial in all cases, so there is no dominant strategy. Also, there is no Nash Equilibrium in pure strategies in this game indicated as follow:

- If there is a lower bidder and a higher bidder, the rational strategy for the lower bidder is to bid zero knowing that it will lose. The higher bidder will bid a value slightly higher and approaches zero in order to maximize its payoff, in which case the lower bidder has the incentive to outbid the higher bidder to win.
- If the two players equally bid, the equalized value of the bid cannot exceed
*V*/2 or the expected payoff for both players will be negative. For any equalized bid less than*V*/2, either player will have the incentive to bid higher.

With the two cases mentioned above, it can be proved that there is no Nash Equilibrium in pure strategies for the game since either player has the incentive to change its strategy in any reasonable situation.

Another popular formulation of the war of attrition is as follows: two players are involved in a dispute. The value of the object to each player is . Time is modeled as a continuous variable which starts at zero and runs indefinitely. Each player chooses when to concede the object to the other player. In the case of a tie, each player receives utility. Time is valuable, each player uses one unit of utility per period of time. This formulation is slightly more complex since it allows each player to assign a different value to the object. Its equilibria are not as obvious as the other formulation. The evolutionarily stable strategy is a mixed ESS, in which the probability of persisting for a length of time *t* is:

The evolutionarily stable strategy below represents the most probable value of *a*. The value *p(t)* for a contest with a resource of value *V* over time *t*, is the probability that *t = a*. This strategy does not guarantee the win; rather it is the optimal balance of risk and reward. The outcome of any particular game cannot be predicted as the random factor of the opponent's bid is too unpredictable.

That no pure persistence time is an ESS can be demonstrated simply by considering a putative ESS bid of *x*, which will be beaten by a bid of *x+*.

It has also been shown that even if the individuals can only play pure strategies, the time average of the strategy value of all individuals converges precisely to the calculated ESS. In such a setting, one can observe a cyclic behavior of the competing individuals.^{[3]}

The evolutionarily stable strategy when playing this game is a probability density of random persistence times which cannot be predicted by the opponent in any particular contest. This result has led to the prediction that threat displays ought not to evolve, and the conclusion that the optimal military strategy is to behave in a completely unpredictable, and therefore insane, manner. Neither of these conclusions appear to be truly quantifiably reasonable applications of the model to realistic conditions.

- ↑ Maynard Smith, J. (1974) Theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts.
*Journal of Theoretical Biology*47: 209-221. - ↑ Bishop, D.T. & Cannings, C. (1978) A generalized war of attrition.
*Journal of Theoretical Biology*70: 85-124. - ↑ K. Chatterjee, J.G. Reiter, M.A. Nowak: "Evolutionary dynamics of biological auctions". Theoretical Population Biology 81 (2012), 69 - 80

- Bishop, D.T., Cannings, C. & Maynard Smith, J. (1978) The war of attrition with random rewards.
*Journal of Theoretical Biology*74:377-389. - Maynard Smith, J. & Parker, G. A. (1976). The logic of asymmetric contests.
*Animal Behaviour*. 24:159-175. - Luce,R.D. & Raiffa, H. (1957) "Games and Decisions: Introduction and Critical Survey"(originally published as "A Study of the Behavioral Models Project, Bureau of Applied Social Research") John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York
- Rapaport,Anatol (1966) "Two Person Game Theory" University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor

- Exposition of the derivation of the ESS - From Ken Prestwich's Game Theory website at College of the Holy Cross

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