Exclusive Economic Zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters. Read all..

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Explanation

[You can read the original article here], Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

Definition

EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

Disputes

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

  • Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[7] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on 15 September 2010.[8]
  • The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
  • Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union.
  • A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves.
  • France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.
  • Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK.
  • Turkey claims a portion of Cyprus's EEZ based on Turkey's definition that no islands, including Cyprus, can have full EEZ[9][10] and should only be entitled to a 12 nautical mile reduced EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey and every other country are entitled to, including an area to the south of Cyprus containing an offshore gas field. Furthermore, the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which was created as result of the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus, also claims portions of Cypriot EEZ. The Republic of Cyprus, intergovernmental organizations and other countries, such the European Union, the United States, Russia, Israel, Switzerland, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Armenia do not acknowledge the Turkish claims[11][12][13][14][15] on Cyprus's land and sea, and urge Turkey to restrain itself from illegal drilling for gas in the island's EEZ.[lower-alpha 1] Furthermore, EU has threatened Turkey with economic and political sanctions for violating the Cypriot EEZ.[27][28]
  • Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[29]

Resolved disputes

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[33] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[34]

By country

Algeria

Algeria in 17 April 2018 establishes an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018.[35][36] The permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations in 27 July 2018 declares his disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the Government of Spain hereby indicates its willingness to enter into negotiations with the Government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones[37], The same was done by the Italian mission in 28 November 2018.[38] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.

25 November 2018 The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explains that the Algerian Government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian Government wishes to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution[39]

20 June 2019 a communication from Algeria addressed to the Italian embassy[40] and the Spain embassy in Algiers[41] to show their eligibility in her exclusive economic zone.

Argentina

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²

Australia

Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[42][43] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[44][45] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[46] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[45]

EEZArea (km2)[45]
Heard and McDonald Islands410,722
 Christmas Island463,371
 Cocos Islands325,021
 Norfolk Island428,618
Macquarie Island471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory2,000,000[status 1]
Total10,148,250

Brazil

Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZArea (km2)[47]
 Brazil2,570,917
Fernando de Noronha363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl.468 599
Total3,830,955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[48]

Canada

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[49] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[50] Land area Total
Mainland 1,975,760 755 757 2,731,517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3,648,532 755 921 4,404,453

China

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus

Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[51] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[52][53]

Denmark

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[54] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2,184,254 2,166,086 4,350,340
Total 2,551,238 2,210,579 4,761,817

France

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2).[55] The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.

Greece

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[56]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[57] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[58]

India

India's exclusive economic zones
EEZArea (km2)
Mainland India and Lakshadweep 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 663,629 km2
Total 2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[59]

Indonesia

Indonesia's exclusive economic zone

Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian archipelago.[60] It has the 3rd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.

Israel

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

Japan

Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi).[61] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores.

EEZArea (km2)
Minami-Tori-shima428,875
Nanpō Islands862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan)1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands1,394,676
Sea of Japan630,721
Daito Islands44
Senkaku Islands7
Sea of Okhotsk235
Total[62]4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[63][64] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Mexico

Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[65] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[66][67] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[68] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[69] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[70] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[71]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[72] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[73]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[74] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[75] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[74]

Norway

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[76]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[77]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1,273,482 323 802 1,597,284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2,385,178 385 226 2,770,404

Philippines

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[78]

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[79]

Portugal

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[80]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[81] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[82] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[83]

Russia

Russia's exclusive economic zone
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[84]

Somalia

Somalia's exclusive economic zone
  • 825,052 km2

South Africa

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[85]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[86]
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom,[87] the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.

The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

The EEZ areas of the UK proper, Crown dependencies and British overseas territories (in decreasing size)[85]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with  Argentina
 Pitcairn Islands 836,108 322,823
 United Kingdom proper 773,676 298,718 includes the  Isle of Man and Rockall
 Tristan da Cunha archipelago 754,720 291,400
 British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with  Mauritius
 Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with  Argentina
 Bermuda 450,370 173,890
 Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
 Ascension 441,658 170,525
 Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
 Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
 Anguilla 92,178 35,590
 British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501 includes  Guernsey and  Jersey
 Montserrat 7,582 2,927
 Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with  Spain
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia 0 0 No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island belong to  Cyprus and  Northern Cyprus respectively[88][89]
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

A part of the overseas territory of  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size)[90]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 Alaska 3,770,021 1,455,613 a non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent
 HawaiiNorthwestern Islands 1,579,538 609,863 including  Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
U.S. East Coast 915,763 353,578 the coastal states of the Eastern United States
 HawaiiSoutheastern Islands 895,346 345,695 these islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
U.S. West Coast 825,549 318,746 the coastal states (excluding Alaska) of the Western United States
 Northern Mariana Islands 749,268 289,294 an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
Mainland Gulf Coast 707,832 273,295 the coastal states of the Southern United States
 Johnston Atoll 442,635 170,902 a National Wildlife Refuge of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Howland and Baker Islands 434,921 167,924 including  Howland Island and  Baker Island, both territories are National Wildlife Refuges of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Wake Island 407,241 157,237 a National Wildlife Refuge of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 American Samoa 404,391 156,136 the only inhabited unorganized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
 Palmyra Atoll and  Kingman Reef 352,300 136,000 both territories are National Wildlife Refuges of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Jarvis Island 316,665 122,265 a National Wildlife Refuge of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Guam 221,504 85,523 an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
 Puerto Rico 177,685 68,605 an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 33,744 13,029 an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
Total 11,351,000 4,383,000

Vietnam

Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[85] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1 France11,691,000579,42212,366,417
2 United States11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3 Australia8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4 Russia7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5 United Kingdom6,805,586872,8917,048,486
6 Indonesia6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7 Canada5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8 Japan4,479,388214,9764,857,318
9New Zealand New Zealand4,083,744277,6104,352,424
10 Brazil3,830,955774,56312,345,832
11 Chile3,681,989252,9474,431,381
12 Kiribati3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13 Mexico3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15Denmark Denmark2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16 Papua New Guinea2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17 Norway2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18 India2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4111,990,711
 Cook Islands1,960,0271,2131,960,264
20 Portugal1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21 Philippines1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23 South Africa1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24 Seychelles1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25 Mauritius1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26 Fiji1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27 Madagascar1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28 Argentina1,159,063856,3463,939,463[91]
29 Ecuador1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30 Spain1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31 Maldives923,32234,538923,622
32 Peru906,45482,0002,191,670
33 China877,019231,34010,473,980
34 Somalia825,05255,8951,462,709
35 Colombia808,15853,6911,949,906
36 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
37 Iceland751,345108,015854,345
38 Tuvalu749,7903,575749,816
39 Vanuatu663,25111,483675,440
40 Tonga659,5588,517660,305
41 Bahamas654,715106,323668,658
42 Palau603,9782,837604,437
43 Mozambique578,98694,2121,380,576
44 Morocco575,230115,1571,287,780
45 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
46 Namibia564,74886,6981,388,864
47 Yemen552,66959,2291,080,637
48 Italy541,915116,834843,251
49 Oman533,18059,071842,680
50 Myanmar532,775220,3321,209,353
51 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
52 Angola518,43348,0921,765,133
53 Greece505,57281,451637,529
54 South Korea475,469342,522575,469
55 Venezuela471,50798,5001,387,950
56 Vietnam417,663365,198748,875
57 Ireland410,310139,935480,583
58 Libya351,58964,7632,111,129
59 Cuba350,75161,525460,637
60 Panama335,64653,404411,163
61 Malaysia334,671323,412665,474
62 Nauru308,48041308,501
63 Equatorial Guinea303,5097,820331,560
64 Thailand299,397230,063812,517
65 Pakistan290,00051,3831,117,911
66 Egypt263,45161,5911,265,451
67 Turkey261,65456,0931,045,216
68 Jamaica258,1379,802269,128
69 Dominican Republic255,89810,738304,569
70 Liberia249,73417,715361,103
71 Honduras249,54268,718362,034
72 Tanzania241,88825,6111,186,975
73 Ghana235,34922,502473,888
74 Saudi Arabia228,633107,2492,378,323
75 Nigeria217,31342,2851,141,081
76 Sierra Leone215,61128,625287,351
77 Gabon202,79035,020470,458
78 Barbados186,898426187,328
79 Côte d'Ivoire176,25410,175498,717
80 Iran168,718118,6931,797,468
81 Mauritania165,33831,6621,190,858
82 Comoros163,7521,526165,987
83 Sweden160,885154,604602,255
84 Senegal158,86123,092355,583
85Netherlands Netherlands154,01177,246192,345
86 Ukraine147,31879,142750,818
87 Uruguay142,16675,327318,381
88 Guyana137,76550,578352,734
89 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
90 Samoa127,9502,087130,781
91 Suriname127,77253,631291,592
92 Haiti126,7606,683154,510
93 Algeria126,3539,9852,508,094
94 Nicaragua123,88170,874254,254
95 Guinea-Bissau123,72539,339159,850
96 Kenya116,94211,073697,309
97 Guatemala114,17014,422223,059
98 Antigua and Barbuda110,0894,128110,531
99 Tunisia101,85767,126265,467
100 Cyprus98,7074,042107,958
101 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
102 Finland87,17185,109425,590
103 Bangladesh86,39266,438230,390
104 Taiwan83,23143,016119,419
105 Eritrea77,72861,817195,328
106 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
107 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
108 Sudan68,14819,8271,954,216
109 Cambodia62,51562,515243,550
110 Guinea59,42644,755305,283
111 Croatia59,03250,277115,626
112 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
113 Germany57,48557,485414,599
114 Malta54,8235,30155,139
115 Estonia36,99236,99282,219
116 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines36,3021,56136,691
117 Belize35,35113,17858,317
118 Bulgaria34,30710,426145,186
119 Benin33,2212,721145,843
120 Qatar31,59031,59043,176
121 Republic of the Congo31,0177,982373,017
122 Poland29,79729,797342,482
123 Dominica28,98565929,736
124 Latvia28,45227,77293,011
125 Grenada27,4262,23727,770
126 Israel26,3523,74548,424
127 Romania23,62719,303262,018
128 Gambia23,1125,58134,407
129 Georgia21,9463,24391,646
130 Lebanon19,5161,06729,968
131 Cameroon16,54711,420491,989
132 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
133 Albania13,6916,97942,439
134 Togo12,0451,26568,830
135 Kuwait11,02611,02628,844
136 Syria10,5031,085195,683
137 Bahrain10,22510,22510,975
138 Brunei10,0908,50915,855
139 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
140 Montenegro7,7453,89621,557
141 Djibouti7,4593,18730,659
142 Lithuania7,0317,03172,331
143 Belgium3,4473,44733,975
144 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
145 Singapore1,0671,0671,772
146 Iraq771771439,088
147 Monaco2882290
148 Palestine2562566,276
149 Slovenia22022020,493
150 Jordan1665989,508
151 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
N/A North KoreaN/AN/AN/A
 Kazakhstan2,724,900
 Mongolia1,564,100
 Chad1,284,000
 Niger1,267,000
 Mali1,240,192
 Ethiopia1,104,300
 Bolivia1,098,581
 Zambia752,612
 Afghanistan652,090
 Central African Republic622,984
 South Sudan619,745
 Botswana582,000
 Turkmenistan488,100
 Uzbekistan447,400
 Paraguay406,752
 Zimbabwe390,757
 Burkina Faso274,222
 Uganda241,038
 Laos236,800
 Belarus207,600
 Kyrgyzstan199,951
   Nepal147,181
 Tajikistan143,100
 Malawi118,484
 Hungary93,028
 Azerbaijan86,600
 Austria83,871
 Czech Republic78,867
 Serbia77,474
 Slovakia49,035
  Switzerland41,284
 Bhutan38,394
 Moldova33,846
 Lesotho30,355
 Armenia29,743
 Burundi27,834
 Rwanda26,338
 North Macedonia25,713
 Eswatini17,364
 Kosovo[a]10,887
 Luxembourg2,586
 Andorra468
 Liechtenstein160
 San Marino61
  Vatican City0.44
Total United Nations137,159,22225,103,204274,004,586

See also

Notes

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

References

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